Sheng‑Fu Chen, Hann‑Chorng Kuo*
Department of Urology, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation and Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
Open Access funded by Buddhist Compassion Relief Tzu Chi Foundation
Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) can induce neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO), leading to urinary incontinence and renal damage due to low bladder compliance and high detrusor pressure during the storage and voiding of urine. In 2011, Botox® (onabotulinumtoxinA, botulinum neurotoxin serotype A [BoNT‑A]) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of NDO. Intradetrusor injection of BoNT‑A has been shown to have clinical utility for the treatment of urinary incontinence, with consequent improvements in quality of life for patients. In the past 20 years, this treatment has been shown to be an effective treatment for patients with SCI refractory to antimuscarinic medication. The present review focused on publications in MEDLINE/PubMed relating to botulinum toxin to evaluate the treatment outcomes of repeated injection of BoNT‑A, the mechanisms of action, results of clinical and urodynamic studies, and adverse effects.
Keywords: Bladder compliance, Botulinum toxin A, Detrusor overactivity, Spinal cord injury