Tzu‑Hui Loa, Ting‑Yu Wua, Pei‑Chen Lib, Dah‑Ching Dingb,c*
aSchool of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan, bDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation and Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan, cInstitute of Medical Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
Open Access funded by Buddhist Compassion Relief Tzu Chi Foundation
Vitamin D deficiency is common globally with a higher prevalence in women, especially during pregnancy. Among the pregnant women, Vitamin D deficiency was reported up to 80% in the Asian group. Vitamin D deficiency was related to a higher risk of maternal complications including preeclampsia, impaired glucose tolerance, and cesarean section rate, and neonatal complications including low birthweight, neonatal hypocalcemia seizure, and impaired skeletal, lung and immune development. There were no data supporting Vitamin D deficiency screening routinely in pregnancy regarding cost‑effectiveness or health benefits. The measurement of Vitamin D in the high‑risk group of women is necessary. Subsequent supplement with Vitamin D with and without calcium supplement during pregnancy had been statistically significantly reported to decrease the risk of preeclampsia, preterm birth, and low birth body weight. However, due to a lack of studies, the strategies of dietary and nutritional supplement for fetal growth restriction prevention are not statistically effective and are not yet recommended. The present review is to provide an overview of the clinical and the experimental evidence of Vitamin D deficiency‑related complication and review of available options for the prevention and management of these complications.
Keywords: Intrauterine growth restriction, Nutrition, Pregnancy, Vitamin D